The research aimed at identifying the forms of selection and training of school principals in Brazilian state and capital networks, updating an overview of these aspects of school management in the country - which had been raised by researcher Heloísa Lück in a study conducted in 2011 - and identifying the trends of the past ten years. In the first part, it presents a portrait of Brazilian school principals based on official data from the 2019 Basic Education Assessment System (Saeb) and the 2020 School Census. Subsequently, it shows a broad survey of data carried out in the first half of 2022 by public auditors, who applied a questionnaire with managers of education secretariats. Based on official data and interviews, the authors systematized some points to contribute to the debate on educational management, as well as to the practices related to training and selection of school directors in Brazil and proposed some recommendations for public policies. This study is a partnership between D³e, Atricon e Todos Pela Educação.