Martin Carnoy is Vida Jacks Professor at the Stanford University School of Education. He has also worked as consultant to the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, UNESCO, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), UNICEF, and the International Labor Organization. Carnoy is a fellow of the National and International Academy of Education and the former president of the Comparative and International Education Society. Much of his work is comparative and international, and investigates the impact of global economic and social change on the way educational systems are organized. He has authored more than thirty books, including the acclaimed “Cuba's Academic Advantage.” Carnoy and colleagues from South Africa and Botswana have recently published an innovative study on primary schooling in southern Africa, The Low Achievement Trap. He is currently completing a book on higher educational change in the large developing countries—Brazil, Russia, India, and China—known as the BRICs. He first did research in Brazil in the 1960s as part of a four-year project on the Latin American free trade area at the Brookings Institution and University of São Paulo. Carnoy has lectured at Brazilian universities, including the Federal University of Bahia in 1985. He has done extensive studies on Brazilian education and policies such as the Education Development Plan (PDE, Plano de Desenvolvimento da Educação).